Health News | ‘Toying with Mother Nature’: Doctors attempt to permanently change DNA

Scientists for the first time have taken the controversial step of trying to edit a gene inside the body – in a bold attempt to permanently change a person’s DNA to try to cure a disease.

The experiment was done in California on 44-year-old Brian Madeux. Through an IV, he received billions of copies of a corrective gene and a genetic tool to cut his DNA in a precise spot.

Recently, in another a first-ever experiment, geneticists successfully modified a human embryo to remove a mutation that causes a life-threatening heart condition.

A major boost

“It’s kind of humbling” to be the first to test this, said Madeux, who has a metabolic disease called Hunter syndrome. “I’m willing to take that risk. Hopefully it will help me and other people.”

Signs of whether it’s working may come in a month; tests will show for sure in three months.

If it’s successful, it could give a major boost to the fledgling field of gene therapy. Scientists have edited people’s genes before, altering cells in the lab that are then returned to patients. There also are gene therapies that don’t involve editing DNA.

But these methods can only be used for a few types of diseases. Some give results that may not last. Some others supply a new gene like a spare part, but can’t control where it inserts in the DNA, possibly causing a new problem like cancer.

This time, the gene tinkering is happening in a precise way inside the body. It’s like sending a mini surgeon along to place the new gene in exactly the right location.

“We cut your DNA, open it up, insert a gene, stitch it back up. Invisible mending,” said Dr Sandy Macrae, president of Sangamo Therapeutics, the California company testing this for two metabolic diseases and haemophilia. “It becomes part of your DNA and is there for the rest of your life.”

Too great to ignore

That also means there’s no going back, no way to erase any mistakes the editing might cause.

“You’re really toying with Mother Nature” and the risks can’t be fully known, but the studies should move forward because these are incurable diseases, said one independent expert, Dr Eric Topol of the Scripps Translational Science Institute in San Diego.

Protections are in place to help ensure safety, and animal tests were very encouraging, said Dr Howard Kaufman, a Boston scientist on the National Institutes of Health panel that approved the studies.

He said gene editing’s promise is too great to ignore. “So far there’s been no evidence that this is going to be dangerous,” he said. “Now is not the time to get scared.”

Fewer than 10 000 people worldwide have these metabolic diseases, partly because many die very young. Those with Madeux’s condition, Hunter syndrome, lack a gene that makes an enzyme that breaks down certain carbohydrates. These build up in cells and cause havoc throughout the body.

Patients may have frequent colds and ear infections, distorted facial features, hearing loss, heart problems, breathing trouble, skin and eye problems, bone and joint flaws, bowel issues and brain and thinking problems.

“Many are in wheelchairs… dependent on their parents until they die,” said Dr Chester Whitley, a University of Minnesota genetics expert who plans to enrol patients in the studies.

Many operations later

Weekly IV doses of the missing enzyme can ease some symptoms, but cost $100 000 to $400 000 (±R1.4 million to R5.6 million) a year and don’t prevent brain damage.

Madeux, who now lives near Phoenix, is engaged to a nurse, Marcie Humphrey, whom he met 15 years ago in a study that tested this enzyme therapy at UCSF Benioff Children’s Hospital Oakland, where the gene editing experiment took place.

He has had 26 operations for hernias, bunions, bones pinching his spinal column, and ear, eye and gall bladder problems.

“It seems like I had a surgery every other year of my life” and many procedures in between, he said. Last year he nearly died from a bronchitis and pneumonia attack. The disease had warped his airway, and “I was drowning in my secretions; I couldn’t cough it out.”

Madeux has a chef’s degree and was part owner of two restaurants in Utah, cooking for US ski teams and celebrities, but now can’t work in a kitchen or ride horses as he used to.

Gene editing won’t fix damage he’s already suffered, but he hopes it will stop the need for weekly enzyme treatments.

Initial studies will involve up to 30 adults to test safety, but the ultimate goal is to treat children very young, before much damage occurs.

How it works

A gene-editing tool called CRISPR has gotten a lot of recent attention, but this study used a different one called zinc finger nucleases. They’re like molecular scissors that seek and cut a specific piece of DNA.

The therapy has three parts: The new gene and two zinc finger proteins. DNA instructions for each part are placed in a virus that’s been altered to not cause infection but to ferry them into cells. Billions of copies of these are given through a vein.

They travel to the liver, where cells use the instructions to make the zinc fingers and prepare the corrective gene. The fingers cut the DNA, allowing the new gene to slip in. The new gene then directs the cell to make the enzyme the patient lacked.

Only 1% of liver cells would have to be corrected to successfully treat the disease, said Madeux’s physician and study leader, Dr Paul Harmatz at the Oakland hospital.

“How bulletproof is the technology? We’re just learning,” but safety tests have been very good, said Dr Carl June, a University of Pennsylvania scientist who has done other gene therapy work but was not involved in this study.

What could go wrong?

Safety issues plagued some earlier gene therapies. One worry is that the virus might provoke an immune system attack. In 1999, 18-year-old Jesse Gelsinger died in a gene therapy study from that problem, but the new studies use a different virus that’s proved much safer in other experiments.

Another worry is that inserting a new gene might have unforeseen effects on other genes. That happened years ago, when researchers used gene therapy to cure some cases of the immune system disorder called “bubble boy” disease. Several patients later developed leukaemia because the new gene inserted into a place in the native DNA where it unintentionally activated a cancer gene.

Image credit: iStock | This rape victim is helping survivors worldwide

In 1999, Joburg-born Claire McFarlane was a 21-year-old working part-time in a bar to fund her entry into L’Ecole des Beaux Arts, where she hoped to study fine art.

One night, she left her workplace at 3am to take a taxi home – which was nothing out of the ordinary. Sadly, she never made it to the taxi. The man who grabbed and violently attacked her made sure of that.

“I knew what was going to happen. Stealing my bag wasn’t his intention,” McFarlane recalls. “I fought hard to get away, but it didn’t help, because the attack became more violent.”

Then, she remembered a self-defence course she’d attended at high school in Australia. A rape survivor had suggested other ways to escape a dangerous situation.

“I started talking to him instead. I lied: I told him I was terminally ill and I was dying. Not only did it change the dynamic… I think that’s what ultimately saved my life.”

Fast forward to 2014, and McFarlane finally shared the story of her brutal rape in a newspaper article. When she did, she realised she could have a positive impact on the lives of other survivors.

Rape isn’t often discussed, because it tends to make people feel uncomfortable. But the fact is, more and more women are travelling alone – and some of them are runners. It’s important they know how to stay safe, and where to go for help and what their rights are if something bad does happen.

Due to the severity of her injuries, McFarlane had to stay in Paris for a further three months, her dream of studying fine art shattered in the aftermath of her harrowing ordeal.

In an attempt to piece her life back together, she returned home to Australia, and filled every waking moment with something to do. She convinced herself everything was okay.

But in 2009 the past came back to haunt her. Her attacker had reoffended and a DNA match had been found. McFarlane was living in Europe at the time and was called upon to return to Paris and identify him in a police line-up.

Standing face-to-face with the man, she remembered him so clearly – and realised she hadn’t healed at all.

“France’s legal system isn’t the same as South Africa’s,” McFarlane explains. “The victim is a civil party in criminal proceedings, as opposed to a witness for the state. That means you have to find your own lawyer; and if you’re a foreigner, you have to pay for the lawyer.”

McFarlane’s legal battle cost her AU$50 000 (around R530 000) and was a long, drawn-out process. Her case dragged painfully through the French justice system for six years, culminating 16 years after the attack itself. And in the end, her attacker only served three and a half years of his sentence.

Sadly, she is now to afraid to return to the city where she came of age, where the artist in her blossomed.


During the legal process, McFarlane used running as a restorative and empowering tool – in particular, she found running on the beach a positive experience. And as she grew physically stronger, she felt safer.

Claire McFarlane running along a beach

She also felt strong enough to share her story. “I wanted people to know what had happened to me in France, and how the justice system works there. The expectation is that France is a forward-thinking country, and that therefore, victims are treated well; but in my case, that couldn’t have been further from the truth.”

McFarlane’s story ran in an Australian newspaper in 2014, and then spread to Africa, the UK and the US. It gave other survivors the courage to break the silence. They reached out to her, eager to share their own stories of sexual violence, whether through rape, assault or child abuse.

McFarlane noticed that some of the taboos and shame that surround rape had shifted – and perhaps, she thought, these survivors would now be more likely to follow through with the criminal process. Inspired, she wondered how she might keep the conversation going.

“Sexual violence and rape is a subject that’s difficult both to talk about and to listen to; but it’s a huge, silent epidemic that affects one in four women, and one in six men. Just talking about it wasn’t going to work. I had to find another way…”

McFarlane thought about the role beach running had played in her own healing, and how she could use it as an example to others that there is life after trauma. In addition, sport has a way of uniting people – so why not use it to bring women together to talk about their experiences?

As part of her initiative, Footsteps to Inspire, McFarlane aims to run 16km of beach in every coastal country of the world, in support of rape survivors: that’s 3 500km, 230-plus beaches, barefoot where possible, in under four years. She will be the first person – and woman – to do it.

McFarlane began her journey in South Africa on 18 July 2016, and has so far run on 30 beaches in 29 countries, including New Zealand, India, Japan, Scotland Namibia and Kenya. She’s planning a symbolic end to her journey, in France, on 18 July 2020.

“I got food poisoning the night before I was supposed to run in Taiwan and I thought it would be the hardest of the bunch,” she recalls. “It was a surfer beach – if you can imagine a Chinese surf town! The sand was beautiful, warm, soft and black, and I was running with lovely people. And I ran 16km, as if charged with all the energy in the world.

“I’m a real example that it’s possible to run in remote areas alone, but safety is key. I make sure I know people on the ground, and ask questions about where is safe, and where isn’t – there are some places where you just can’t run alone,in which case I ask the locals to accompany me.”

A learning curve

Besides running in each country she visits and sharing her story with survivors, McFarlane connects with NGOs, services and community groups.

She aims to help governments to understand the issues faced by survivors all over the world.

“While there’s no doubt South Africa has one of the highest number of rape cases in the world, lots of other countries have the same rate of sexual violence, McFarlane has observed. “In the UK, half a million people are sexually violated every year; and in the US, someone is assaulted every 90 seconds.

“Rape culture perpetuates silence and shame: victims tend to blame themselves or feel guilty about what’s happened, and they don’t want to talk about it. In some countries, women are actually punished for opening up.”

Adding to that, from her own personal experience McFarlane knows all too well that sometimes the law fails victims completely. It’snot all bad. In some countries, McFarlane has observed positive steps being taken to ensure survivors are supported.

“Malaysia is a country that surprised me: they have one of the best one-stop crisis centres I have ever seen. Taiwan is equally progressive.

“Over the next 10 years, South Africa plans to roll out sexual violence courts across the country. Professionals will be trained to apply the law properly, so that victims will have a better outcome. I hope that society will stop blaming the victim, and instead ask why someone would decide to harm another person.”

McFarlane has been invited to speak at TEDx twice, and some of the countries and communities she has visited have pledged to hold an annual beach run to raise even more awareness about sexual violence.

“This journey is about acknowledging the issues,” McFarlane says. “Once we know what’s really happening, we can find a solution.”

This article was originally featured on

Image credits: Supplied

NEXT ON HEALTH24X | This man has been injecting snake venom for 30 years – and this is what happened

For nearly 30 years, London-based reptile enthusiast and musician Steve Ludwin has been injecting snake venom – a practice that has almost killed him.

It may now help save thousands of lives, as researchers search for a new antidote based on his body’s response to the toxic fluids.

“It sounds very crazy what I am doing but it turns out that it potentially has lots of health benefits,” Ludwin, the tattooed 51-year-old told AFP in the living room of his home in the British capital.

Strengthened immune system

Ludwin demonstrated his decades-old habit by firmly holding the head of a green Pope’s tree viper – Trimeresurus popeiorum – and extracting a few drops of its venom.

Minutes later, he has injected the fluid into his arm using a syringe.

Over the years Ludwin has injected the venom of some of the world’s most dangerous snakes, including the black mamba and cobras.

He claimed it has strengthened his immune system so much he has not suffered from a cold in 15 years.

‘Quite a few accidents’

But it has not been all positive.

“I have had quite a few accidents,” Ludwin said, recalling he once ended up in a London hospital’s intensive care unit for three days following an overdose.

“It’s a very, very dangerous thing to do; I don’t encourage people to do it”.

“The sensation of injecting snake venom is not pleasant at all… it’s not like a Jim Morrison trip. You don’t trip – it’s extreme pain”, said Ludwin, who wears a snake pendant.

Ludwin’s behaviour researched

Ludwin’s unique behaviour is the subject of a short film at a new exhibition on venom opening at London’s Natural History Museum.

His habit has taken on new meaning in recent years after a team of researchers at the University of Copenhagen embarked on producing an anti-venom using his antibodies.

“When he injects venom, his immune system responds,” Brian Lohse, a professor at the faculty of health and medical sciences at the University of Copenhagen, said in a phone interview.

“What we expect is to find copies of his antibodies, isolate them, test them, and eventually set up a production of them.”

Four full-time researchers, who began work in 2013, expect to complete the project within a year.

Cheaper antidotes 

If successful, it would be the first human-derived anti-venom made from a donor who has injected himself with different snake venoms.

Antidotes to date have been harnessed by collecting antibodies from animals, usually horses, that have been given venom.

“Today’s animal-derived antibodies are quite expensive in hospital settings,” said Lohse, noting the average price for a treatment is typically £1 500–2 300 (±R28 000–R43 000), but can top £11 700 (±R220 000) in extreme cases.

“Our anti-venoms are aimed to cost a hundred dollars and we hope to make it freely available in countries where people are bitten every day and people die every day,” he added.

Lohse said he hopes to distribute the new anti-venom free of charge with the support of governments or non-profit organisations.

Snake bites a ‘neglected’ health issue

According to the World Health Organisation, snake bites are a “neglected” public health issue.

It estimates that around 5.4 million people worldwide are bitten by snakes every year, and between 81 000 and 138 000 die.

A previous Health24 article reported on the beneficial health effects of snake venom. The use of snake venom as a cancer treatment has also been studied

Although Lohse values the indispensable part Ludwin has played in the venture, he has reservations about his habit.

“Science, and perhaps future snake bite victims, can express their gratitude towards Steve’s endeavours, but on the other side it’s very dangerous to do self-immunisation,” he said.

“Steve has been in serious danger several times, therefore I would strongly discourage anybody to do what Steve has done.”

Image credit: iStock | How masturbating, breathing and 23 other simple habits can make you the healthiest you’ve ever been

You know the basics of what you need to do to help your health: Eat right, get moving and stop smoking.

Those are the majors, but as any guy who lifts to build muscle knows, the accessory work is pretty damn important, too.

Just like how you need to give your smaller muscles some love if you want to build a truly impressive physique, you have to pay attention to the little stuff if you want to become the healthiest man you can be.

The good news is, tons of these health accessory work is super easy to implement. The harder part? It can be difficult to know what you really need to focus on.

So we’ve taken the guesswork out of it for you. We picked the brains of 25 of the top doctors, nutritionists, sex therapists and other wellness experts out there to determine the single best thing you can do to help your health.

We’re not talking large, overarching life changes – these are the simple, small things you can get started on right now.

Take a read through the list and pick out the ones you want to try. Your body and mind will thank you.

1. Make time for masturbation

Take your health into your own hands. When your stress levels peak, masturbation can help you unwind, says relationship therapist Paul Hokemeyer, PhD. That’s because reaching orgasm will release a whole slew of feel-good hormones, like oxytocin and prolactin, which leave you with that calm, sleepy feeling you typically experience after climax.

“Too often we forget that our bodies are incredible machines that can provide us with all sorts of wonderful coping and performance mechanisms,” says Hokemeyer.

And while it works wonders for your mood, masturbating can also help prevent prostate cancer, the third leading cause of cancer death in men.

In fact, men between the ages of 20 to 29 who ejaculated 21 times or more each month are 19% less likely to be diagnosed with prostate cancer than those who ejaculated less often, according to research from Boston University.

Read more: 11 shocking facts you never knew about masturbation

2. Spot the ugly ducking on your skin

Melanoma isn’t the most common kind of skin cancer, but it’s responsible for the greatest number of deaths. You can increase your chances of beating the cancer by catching it early.

Normal moles can grow and change, but they usually do so symmetrically and very slowly over the course of years, says Dr Saira J George, an assistant professor of dermatology at the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Centre.

Any mole that is changing in size, shape or colour within weeks or months warrants special attention. But pay extra special attention if the mole in question is an “ugly duckling” that looks different from the rest of your other moles.

Doctor checking a man's mole.

Read more: 5 cancers that kill men – and how to spot them before it’s too late

3. Mind your breath

“For the first 10 minutes of your next workout, commit to breathing solely through your nose,” suggests Nathan Helming, head coach and co-founder of The Run Experience.

“The reduced airway passage will force you to breathe more deeply to fully engage your diaphragm for more powerful and relaxed belly breathing. It works if you’re going on a run, taking a spin or even lifting weights on your own.”

After you practice this for the first time, you’ll quickly realise how often you tense up and hold your breath in your chest, neck and shoulders. This type of tension can actually lead to greater stress levels, poorer performance, and even side-stitches and cramps, explains Helming.

4. Perform a daily tick check

Do a tick check daily, paying extra close attention to anything below the belt that’s about the size and colour of a poppy seed, says Dr Thomas Mather, director of the TickEncounter Resource Centre at the University of Rhode Island.

That can be a nymph-stage tick, which can be loaded with disease-causing germs, like the bacteria that causes Tick Bike Fever. These ticks typically latch on at shoe level and crawl up, until they get “stuck” where underwear or skin folds restrict their further ascent.

So when you’re sitting on the throne each day, check your scrotum and penis for any spots that fit the bill. And if you do see one, remove it with a tweezers.

Despite what you may have heard about a lit match getting rid of the buggers, it’s never a good idea to touch a hot object to a tiny tick attached to your scrotum.

5. Check out your chest

Men can also get breast cancer – about 2 500 cases are diagnosed in the US this year alone, says Dr Sharon Giordano, chair of the department of health services research at the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Centre.

If you develop any symptoms like a lump under your nipple or bleeding from your nipple, head to your doctor for further evaluation, as these can be signs of breast cancer in guys.

Your doctor may order a mammogram, ultrasound or biopsy to check for cancer.

6. Have ‘The Talk’ 

Four out of every five men don’t talk to others about their sexual health – or any health issue, for that matter, a survey from Orlando Health found. That’s a problem, since knowing where you stand health-wise can help ensure your equipment works years down the line, says Dr Jamin Brahmbhatt, a urologist at Orlando Health.

So talk with your partner about STI history, and your family about any health risks that may affect you, like high blood pressure, obesity or diabetes. All those conditions can lead to problems with erections down the road, so if you know you’re at genetic risk of them now, you can be on the lookout for signs and symptoms that might be signalling them.

That means you may be able to start medical treatment – and lifestyle changes – as soon as possible. And that can help prevent problems with your penis before they start.

7. Calm your mind

Stress is a culprit behind six of today’s leading causes of death, says Dr Marlynn Wei, a New York City psychiatrist and author of The Harvard Medical School Guide to Yoga.

 But as little as five minutes of mindfulness a day can tamp down stress and improve your health.

“Pick a regular time that works best for you – in the morning or before bed – and make your practice part of your normal routine,” she says.

Try evenly paced yoga breathing, guided audio meditation or a few yoga poses. Or just take a few minutes every morning to set an intention for the day.

“Regular, consistent practice is key – and it will become easier over time,” she says.

Man relaxing on the grass

8. Get your heart pumping 

“Exercise at least 30 to 40 minutes a day most days of the week,” says Dr Prediman K Shah, director of the Oppenheimer Atherosclerosis Research Centre and Atherosclerosis Prevention and Treatment Centre at the Cedars Sinai Heart Institute.

He recommends cardio most days a week and weights twice a week.

Read more: Most effective fat burning workout

9. Protect your pearly whites

The number one thing you can do for your teeth is obvious: Brush twice a day for two minutes with fluoride toothpaste, every dentist ever is obligated to tell you.

But this year, you should also be wary of a common tooth saboteur: sports drinks. They stain teeth and erode enamel, studies show.

If you use them, “drink the clear sports drinks,” says Dr Mark S Wolff, chair of the department of cardiology and comprehensive care at the New York University College of Dentistry. That can help alleviate stain risk.

10. Fill up on fibre

The average guy consumes less than half the recommended 30 to 38g of fibre per day, and that’s a problem.

“One of the most unsung heroes of a healthy diet is dietary fibre,” says Dr Akash Goel, a gastroenterologist at New York Presbyterian Hospital.

Fibre helps you keep your cholesterol and blood sugar levels under control and protects you from heart disease, diabetes and obesity.

Dr Goel recommends adding more greens, beans and seeds your diet. His favourites are mustard and collard greens, split peas and lentils, and chia or flax seeds.

When you shop for groceries, calculate the carb: fibre ratio, or the grams of carbs, dividing by the grams of fibre.

“Your benchmark number should be 10:1, which is the natural carb:fibre ratio in unprocessed wheat, a true whole grain,” he says. If the ratio is 5:1 or lower, even better.

“If you must eat bread, for example, go for one which has a carb:fibre ratio of 3.5:1,” he says.

11. Think like a dad

A paternal instinct could be good for you. “Run every decision about your own ‘health’ through this filter: will it help my kids have the best possible future?” says Dr David Katz, director of the Yale University Prevention Research Centre.

This strategy works because it covers everything.

“For our kids to thrive, we need to be kind. For them to care about nutrition, exercise, sleep, managing stress, avoiding toxins like tobacco – we need to show them we care. For them to have the planet they deserve – vital, vibrant, sustainable – we need to care about that now, and show it.”

All these things will benefit the next generation – and you.

A father and son playing outdoors

Read more: Rugby powerhouse Siya Kolisi on fatherhood

12. Take your holiday days

And don’t spend the whole time checking work email.

“Holidays improve sleep, boost creativity, reduce inflammation and stress, enhance immunity, and help you reconnect with your closest friends and family, which in turn creates a positive cascade,” says Dr Murali Doraiswamy, a professor of psychiatry and behavioural sciences at Duke University.

“There is no drug invented that can positively transform every tissue in your body as dramatically as a vacation can.”

Take a long vacation in the summer but sprinkle short ones throughout the year as well to sustain benefits.

13. Make minor goals to hit your major ones

Setting big, overarching fitness goals is great, but sometimes they can seem daunting. So here’s what to do, suggests trainer Tony Gentilcore, owner of CORE in Boston, US. Pick two or three “process goals” or small, more manageable goals that will help you work towards your main one.

For instance, say you want to squat twice your bodyweight. Instead of focusing solely on the sets, reps and load that will help you get there, make supplementary goals to work on it from another angle.

These could be ones like hitting the gym at least three times a week or setting aside seven to eight hours for quality sleep each night. Write your goals on a calendar and tack it up on the fridge, checking off each day you complete it. Shoot for 90% compliance by the end of the week.

Read more: Why all men should deep squat for 5 minutes a day

14. Prep your meals

A 2012 study published in the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology found that you spend up to four hours a day resisting temptations and desires. The number one desire is food, says nutritional advisor Dr Mike Roussell.

“I have noticed that clients get themselves into trouble with their diets when they wait until the last minute to decide what they are going to eat, as they succumb to whatever desire or urge they are having at the moment,” says Dr Roussell.

Planning when and what you are going to eat prevents you from succumbing to cravings, so prepare your meals ahead of time whenever possible, he suggests. When it isn’t possible, map out what you are going to eat and where, says Dr Roussell.

For example, if you’re going out to eat, take a look at the menu before you go, so you can take a glance at your options and commit to a healthier choice before you’re tempted by that fried chicken sandwich.

Meal prepping

15. Have lots of sex

Getting it on is good for you: A study published in the British Medical Journal found that men who had orgasms twice a week had half the risk of dying – even when the researchers took general health and fitness into account, says sex researcher Robin Milhausen, a professor of family relations and human sexuality at the Univeristy of Guelph in Canada.

In fact, having sex three or more times a week might cut your risk for heart attack and stroke by half, a follow-up study indicated.

But there are other benefits to having sex, she says, like improving your mental wellbeing and boosting intimacy between you and your partner.

Don’t assume you have to do it every night to notice the mental difference, either. Couples who do the deed more than once a week aren’t any happier that those who have weekly, suggests Canadian research.

Read more: Having sex once a week is the equivalent of a raise

16. Go back to the basics

“Each day, aim to eat about six to eight palm-sized portions of protein-rich food and six to eight fist-sized portions of vegetables. Protein and vegetables are the two most important food groups to help you reach your body composition and health goals,” says nutrition and exercise expert Brian St. Pierre, director of performance nutrition at Precision Nutrition.

Loading up on protein helps keep your hunger at bay, meaning you’ll feel fuller for longer. Plus, protein revs your metabolism and helps you build and preserve hard muscle.

As for vegetables? They’re nutrient powerhouses – loaded with filling fibre and water, vitamins, minerals and health-promoting phytonutrients, he says.

17. Make your car a sun shield

Install UVA/UVB clear coating on your car windows. It protects your eyes and skin from DNA damage that can lead to eye disease, skin cancer and premature ageing, says Dr Kimberly Cockerham, a surgeon in Plastics-Orbit-Neuro-Ophthalmology at Centre Valley Eye.

This doesn’t replace sunscreen, “but rather enhances its efficacy”, she says.

18. Walk your way to weight loss

If you’re looking to shed kilos, but have no idea how to start, try going for a 30 to 60 minute walk after one of your meals, suggests obesity specialist Dr Spencer Nadolsky.

If you have issues starting a workout routine, whether it’s physically out of reach or you haven’t found the motivation, walking won’t seem as daunting of a task.

“Going for a walk after a meal will not only help with your weight, but it will keep your blood sugars down, too. Plus, if you have a significant other it’s a great time to spend with them,” says Dr Nadolsky.

Not only that, but research suggests that walking can minimise your cravings, help you sleep better and even help you de-stress.

While it doesn’t seem like you’re working your body hard, you’ll burn more kilojoules walking than you would sitting on the coach, tempted by that post-dinner dessert. And who knows, maybe those walks will eventually turn into runs?

A couple walking their dog

19. Get vaccinated against cancer

Rates of cancers affecting the tonsils, base of the tongue and throat are rising – and the increase is due in large part to oral strains of human papilloma virus (HPV) that affect the mouth.

The good news is the HPV vaccine can help protect against these cancers if it’s given early enough, says Dr Eric Sturgis, a professor in the department of head and neck surgery at the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center.

Kids should get a two-dose regimen of it before their 13th birthday, but if you missed out back then, you can reduce your risk of HPV-associated cancers through a three-dose catch-up series up until age 26.

20. Eat your greens

Aim to eat at least one serving of leafy greens, like kale and spinach, at every meal, says registered dietician Keri Glassman. Green vegetables offer a powerful dose of fibre, vitamins and minerals, including antioxidants and phytochemicals which have been shown to prevent heart disease and may help reduce the risk of cancer.

Experts believe that the carotenoids in leafy greens act as antioxidants, slowing the damage that free radicals cause our bodies, before they can do harm, says Glassman. Add variety to your diet or your go-to spinach salad by roasting hearty green veggies like broccoli rabe or blending beet greens into your smoothie.

21. Give yourself a break

If you want to take care of your mind, try being nicer to yourself.

“None of us are perfect, yet we often act as if we should be. We tend to give our friends a lot of leeway when they make mistakes, but we are often very harsh with ourselves,” says Dr Fred Rabinowitz, a professor of psychology at California’s University of Redlands.

“By beating yourself up, not only do you feel bad, but you also add extra pressure on yourself to not mess up, which interferes with performance.”

So, what’s a guy to do? Treat yourself like you would a friend, says Dr Rabinowitz. Give yourself a break so you have the energy to do better, rather than carry around the baggage of being angry with yourself.

The best way to do that is by being just as compassionate with yourself as you would be with your best buddy. Either out loud or mentally, give yourself a pep talk as if you were talking to him.

Try something like “You made a mistake, but you’re okay. You will fix it and move on.” Or, “Everyone makes mistakes. You didn’t intend to have it go this way. Learn from it and move on.”

22. Eat a handful of walnuts 

“Incorporating small snacks between meals will help increase your energy, keep your hunger at bay, and adds to your daily nutrient intake,” says certified exercise physiologist Jim White, owner of Jim White Fitness Studios.

Focus on 100 to 200 calories with a mix of protein, carbohydrates, and healthy fats at least two to three times per day, he says. Choose something like walnuts, which boast 4g of protein, 2g of fibre and the highest amount of plant-based omega-3 fatty acids over any other nut, in just one ounce.

“Pair them with non-fat Greek yogurt or eat all on their own, you’ll be getting a snack packed with optimal nutrients,” says White.

A handful of walknuts

23. Put a daily ‘check-in’ on your calendar

Talking to your partner can help ward off the stresses of everyday life, says sex researcher and relationship therapist Dr Sarah Hunter Murray.

“When our romantic relationship is running smoothly, it acts as a buffer that helps weather the storm of other stresses we might be facing in our lives. But if we’re feeling stressed in our relationship, it’s going to have the opposite effect,” she explains.

“To help keep stress low in your relationship, the best thing to do is talk often and openly.”

So make time every day to check in with your partner. While you don’t want to bring up every gripe and grievance you have with her, your feelings can crop up in less healthy ways if they aren’t properly addressed, so it’s important to share the harder things that are bothering you, too.

Feeling your partner “jokingly” put you down in front of your friends or seeing her put work ahead of spending time with you can manifest as bad eating habits, drinking or zoning out in front of the TV instead of going to the gym, says Dr Murray.

But when you address your issues head on, you’ll feel lighter – and that reduced stress helps in all areas of your wellbeing.

24. Roll up your sleeves

Even if you’re a healthy guy, there’s one shot you need to get each year: the flu vaccine, says board-certified infectious disease specialist Dr Brent W Laartz, author of How to Avoid Contagious Diseases.

Thousands of deaths could prevented each year if everyone got the shot, he says. (If you’re over 65, have a chronic illness, or smoke, you want to get the pneumonia vaccine, too.)

And when you make your appointment for the flu shot, schedule it for the morning. Research from the University of Birmingham in the UK found that people had twice the number of flu antibodies – proteins that your body produces to fight off infection – after receiving the shot between 9am and 11am than those who got it between 3pm and 5pm did.

25. Stop pain fast

To protect against developing chronic pain, there are three things to keep in mind, says Dr Paul J Christo, an associate professor at Johns Hopkins Medicine and author of the upcoming book Aches and Gains: A Comprehensive Guide to Overcoming Your Pain.

First, don’t wait it out. If you’re in any kind of pain, see treatment fast. The more you wait, the more difficult it can be to treat. Secondly, reach out for help, whether it is a specialist or a support group. Finally, be open to traditional, integrative and innovative pain therapy options out there.

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Image credits: iStock | Knowing too much about your genes might be risky

There’s such a thing as too much information when it comes to learning about your genes, two new studies suggest.

In one study, participants thought they were learning about their genetic risk for depression, not knowing that the test results they were given had been made up at random.

The study participants who were told they had a higher genetic risk for depression recalled having experienced more symptoms of depression than did those who were told they did not have an increased genetic risk.

Distorted memories

“These results suggest that merely being told they have a genetic propensity toward depression might actually distort people’s memories about how much depression they’ve experienced in the past,” the study’s lead author, Matthew Lebowitz, said in a Yale University news release.

The study’s co-author, Woo-kyoung Ahn, a psychology professor at Yale, added that “this is particularly alarming when we consider that patients’ memories about their own subjective experiences are the primary information used to make a psychiatric diagnosis.”

The findings were published in the Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology.

In a second study by the same research team, participants who were told they did not have a genetic risk for obesity rated diet and exercise as less important, and were much more likely to eat unhealthy foods than were participants who were not given this information.

The study, available online, will be published in the journal Appetite.

False sense of invulnerability

“It seems that when people were told they did not have a particular genetic susceptibility to obesity, they assumed that they wouldn’t have to worry about what they ate or how much exercise they got,” Ahn said.

This “genetic invincibility effect” can give people a false sense of invulnerability, according to the researchers.

Lebowitz said, “Providing people with information about their own genes is likely to become an increasingly common practice in many areas of health care, and this will probably have a lot of benefits.”

But, he added, “While the advantages of increased access to genetic information seem to be widely recognised, our findings suggest that there might also be some downsides that the field needs to grapple with.”

Image credit: iStock