Once upon a time, I used to be obsessed with a spin instructor who taught at 7:30 p.m. twice a week. Even though I ended work at 5:30 p.m., I still waited two hours to get my sweat on—and don’t get me wrong, class was amazing. I was always in the greatest mood, and the rush of endorphins was just what I needed… until I tried to get to bed a few hours later, only to stare at the ceiling instead of fall asleep.
That’s right: It turns out the time you hit the gym can play a huge role when it comes to your sleep cycle. Studies have shown that vigorous exercise less than three hours before bedtime can lead to delayed sleep onset. “When you start to move, your heart beats faster to pump more blood to your muscles. This increases blood flow overall, including the blood flow to your brain—and greater blood flow to your brain increases energy and alertness,” says nutritionist and exerice physiologist Gabbi Berkow, RD.
The other thing is, your body also releases several hormones when you exercise, including adrenaline and norepinephrine. “Since exercise places physical ‘stress’ on your body (in a good way!), it also increases circulating levels of hormones that are released during the stress response,” explains Berkow. “These hormones increase your heart rate, energy, and metabolism—all of which are helpful during exercise, but not conducive to falling asleep.”
After exercising, your body naturally goes through a cool-down period that brings your hormones back under control once activity stops. But the length can be different depending on the person. Some people can easily cool down within 30 minutes, while others take several hours… and clearly, I was the latter.
When should you go for a sweat session, then? Unfortunately, there's no one correct answer. “The best time of day to exercise is whenever you’re most consistent,” says Berkow. “You don’t see better results from working out in the morning, afternoon, or evening—you see the best results when you’re the most consistent.” So if you’re not a morning person, forcing yourself to wake up for a 6 a.m. run is probably not going to work on a regular basis.
If the only time you can fit in a workout is 8 p.m. (and you're planning to turn in within three hours), all hope isn’t lost, assures Berkow. “The more intense the exercise, the harder it will be to fall asleep immediately after. For example, if you lift weights or do cardio right before bed, you may have some trouble falling asleep because your body is amped up from the intense exercise,” she cautions.
However, as long as it’s not done too close to bed, "exercise can actually help you fall asleep because it exerts energy," says Berkow. "Relaxing exercises like slow, flowing yoga and stretching can be done right before bed, and these can be helpful for falling asleep, since they calm your body and nervous system down."
As for the days you just can’t miss that late-night boxing class? Here's how to cool down faster. “Make sure you cool down and stretch right after your workout, as this will begin the process of helping your body calm down and return to normal,” says Berkow. “Take a warm, relaxing shower, and make a well-balanced dinner that combines at least 20 to 30 grams of protein, whole-grain carbohydrates, and green veggies. The combination of a hot shower and sitting down to a nutritious dinner helps get your body into a relaxed state.”
In addition, staying away from bright lights and phone screens for at least an hour before bed will also help, since the blue light from your phone inhibits the production of melatonin in your body—the hormone your body needs to regulate your circadian rhythm. By taking these precautions, you can hit up your favorite late evening class and still score the best sleep ever.
If you thought Jennifer Lopez couldn't be any more badass, think again. The actress, dancer, and singer is adding yet another talent to her already colossal résumé: pole dancing.
Her S.O.-turned-Instagram-boyfriend Alex Rodriguez recently took to his Stories to share a couple videos of J.Lo working it on the pole as part of her training for her upcoming role in the film Hustler.
Wearing nothing but a black sports bra, shorts and heels, Lopez is seen kicking her legs over around the pole and spinning like a seasoned pro. Naturally, "I've Had the Time of My Life" from Dirty Dancing was playing in the background.
Photo: Instagram / @arod
FYI, as fun and easy as J.Lo makes the whole thing look, pole dancing requires some serious strength and skill—so much so that the Global Association of International Sports Federation (GAISF) is thinking of turning it into an Olympic sport. "Pole Sports requires great physical and mental exertion; strength and endurance are required to lift, hold, and spin the body," GAISF said in a statement. "A high degree of flexibility is needed to contort, pose, demonstrate lines, and execute techniques."
That's why J.Lo isn't taking her training lightly. "It's very hard!" she said during a visit to Jimmy Kimme Live! earlier this month. "I have bruises everywhere. It's so hard. I have a lot of respect for people who do the pole. It's much more difficult than [professional dancing]. It's, like, acrobatic. It's different muscle groups and the things they do with their legs, upside down, I'm like, 'What? I can't… hold on. Can we do that part again?' It's hard!" (Inspired? Here are some of the reasons you should take a pole dancing class yourself.)
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Devotees of the “sport of functional fitness” (as CrossFit is known) claim it’s the best and fastest route to health, while skeptics point toward the risk of injury. As with most polarized subjects, that’s in part due to the fact that many people are a little bit fuzzy on the details of what CrossFit actually entails.
“There’s a lot of misconceptions around what CrossFit is,” says Dave Lipson, CrossFit Level Four Trainer and founder of Thundr Bro, an educational fitness platform. “People think it’s all what you see on TV, that it’s just the professional CrossFit Games athletes you see on ESPN, but it’s not.”
With that in mind, Health spoke to CrossFit experts to find out exactly what CrossFit training is, the benefits of CrossFit, and how to know whether or not CrossFit is for you.
What is CrossFit training?
Chances are you’ve heard the generic yet succinct CrossFit definition: “constantly varied, functional movements, executed at high intensity.”
But what does that actually mean? “From an exercise perspective, CrossFit takes all aspects of fitness and sports, cherry picks the best, most effective, and most applicable to everyday life, and combines them together," says four-time CrossFit Games champion Rich Froning, founder of CrossFit Mayhem, a box—CrossFit speak for gym—in Cookeville, Tennessee.
In short, functional movements are those that mimic the things you do outside the gym: carry groceries from the car to the kitchen, pick up a baby or chair off the ground, climb stairs, get out of bed. “These functional movements reflect the best aspects of gymnastics, weightlifting, and monostructural [or cardio] exercise,” says Tony Carvajal, a CrossFit Level One Trainer and RSP Nutrition athlete.
Cardio? Check. Heavy lifts? Check. Mobility work, flexibility training, and body control? Check, check, and check. “It’s a workout program that integrates multiple sports and training regimens all in one,” Carvajal says.
What a CrossFit class is like
CrossFit isn't a franchise (like your local Pizza Hut); instead, it’s an affiliate, explains CrossFit Games commentator Tanya Wagner, a CrossFit Level Two Trainer at CrossFit Apex in Bucks County, Pennsylvania. “That means every box has its own individual programming and style. It’s not one-size-fits-all.” There are over 15,000 CrossFit boxes worldwide.
That said, generally, CrossFit classes last an hour, broken down into four different components: a warm-up, strength or skill, workout of the day or WOD, and cooldown or mobility session.
The warm-up is basically foreplay to the WOD. It’s meant to prepare your joints for the movements ahead. The strength component has one goal—you guessed it—to make you stronger, but it can take different forms. For example, you might be tasked with sets of one repitition of the maximum you can deadlift or six sets of three power snatches. A skill workout is intended to help you improve your ability to do a specific exercise, like double unders, toes to bars, or handstand walking. Typically, the skill that you work on will make an appearance in the WOD.
The WOD, which is also sometimes called a metcon (short for metabolic conditioning), is the meat and potatoes of CrossFit training. You'll perform a certain combination of exercises either for a set amount of time or until you've completed a specific number of reps. If you’re accustomed to 60 minutes of nonstop movement in your favorite bootcamp, you might be surprised to learn that most CrossFit workouts only last five to 15 minutes (and that anything longer is considered an endurance WOD).
There are so many possibilities for a WOD that you won't see many CrossFit workouts more than once at a gym. But there are a few benchmark workouts (which are usually named after women: Fran, Grace, Diane) and hero workouts (which are done in honor of fallen servicemen—the most famous is Murph), which can be used to track your progress over time and qualitatively show you that you’re improving, says Anthony Gustin, a certified strength and conditioning specialist and co-founder of Perfect Keto.
CrossFit training usually wraps up with a stretching and mobility session—or athletes will stretch on their own after a workout. For instance, after a “grippy” workout (think: pull-ups or jump rope), you might do a series of forearm stretches.
The benefits of CrossFit
“Whether your fitness goal is to help you maintain your current fitness level, get just 1% fitter, lose weight, do a pull-up, or be able to lift a certain weight, CrossFit can help you reach it,” says Kyra Williams, a certified personal trainer and CrossFit Level One Trainer.
In fact, research backs up just how effective it really is. For example, a team of exercise physiologists out of the University of Wisconsin-La Crosse found that women who performed two different CrossFit workouts burned over 12 calories per minute and maintained an elevated heart rate throughout the entire session.
CrossFit can also have positive mental and emotional effects, Gustin says. “It teaches people that they are capable of more than they think. Gaining mental toughness and pushing yourself to new heights in a CrossFit class can trickle down to other parts of your life and give you confidence to tackle the unknown.”
There's also the community aspect of CrossFit. Sure, you could do a CrossFit workout by yourself, but part of the magic happens in the box, says Clint Fisher, CrossFit Level One Trainer and co-owner of CrossFit Charleston. “There is just something that happens when you get like-minded people in the same room. You lift each other up. You become a family.”
Will I get injured if I try CrossFit?
Despite gruesome stories you may have heard, probably not. A 2018 study deemed CrossFit training "relatively safe compared with more traditional training modalities." The researchers wrote: “Over the past several years, CrossFit training has been scrutinized in the mainstream media because of the supposed high incidence of injuries; however, these statements seem not to be supported by empirical evidence.”
What about rhabdo? While rhabdomyolysis—a condition where the muscle tissue breaks down so severely that it can mess up the kidneys—is a real risk of any high-intensity workouts, it's no more common in CrossFit than any other workout, Lipson says. Plus, it's avoidable with smart coaching and thoughtful programming, he adds, not to mention listening to your body and building up workout intensity gradually.
How do I know if CrossFit is for me?
Maybe you’ve heard CrossFit addicts swear the sport's for anyone. Or maybe you’ve noticed the age diversity on the official CrossFit Instagram. But CrossFit really is for anyone. “We have former football players working out with people in their 70s and 80s and new moms,” Lipson says.
How is that possible? While every workout will have suggested weights and movements, the majority of people at most CrossFit boxes do something called scaling. “Scaling allows anyone to complete the same workout simply by altering the weights and movements based on the athlete's ability in order to produce the same level of intensity,” explains Carvajal.
For example, if a workout calls for 50 reps of toes to bar, the coach might have one person scale it down to just 25 or another person just touch their knees to their elbows.
How to get started with CrossFit training
First, check the official CrossFit affiliate map to find box locations near you. Then do some research.
“The longer the gym has been around, the better," Carvajal says. "If a gym has been around at least five to six years, that’s always a good sign.” He also recommends looking up how educated the trainers are. “Most gyms will have the coaches' credentials on their website. The more certifications and accolades the better.”
But credentials aren’t everything. A coach's actual leadership style, communication skills, and emphasis on form and safety in class are what Wagner says matter most. “You should find a place that you personally feel comfortable getting all your questions answered.”
Don’t be afraid to box shop either. “Every box has a different community and vibe,” says Lipson. “Some are younger, some are older. Some are more competitive, while others have a more community vibe.” If you’re not vibing with one particular CrossFit space, try another.
Once you find a box, the only real way to know if you like CrossFit is to try it. Like we said: Just like period sex.
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On average, we sit for about 12 hours every day. “Yikes” is right. “Whether it’s at a desk or in the car, when people sit for most of the day, they may develop tight hip flexors. These muscles attach to the lumbar spine and could create lower-back pain when they are shortened,” explains physical therapist Erica Anne Meloe, owner of Velocity Physiotherapy in New York City and author of Why Do I Hurt?
So what can you do to help those suffering hip muscles? First, make sure you’re getting up and walking around throughout the day—researchers suggest at least once every 30 minutes. But to further help, try this hip-opening sequence created specifically for Health readers by Peloton yoga instructor Kristin McGee. “These poses take a 360-degree approach, helping to stretch and strengthen the hips from all angles—front, side, and back,” says McGee.
Run through them three to four times a week, and you’ll feel so much looser.
Cow Face pose
Get onto all fours. Cross right leg over left, then sit back down between your heels or on a block, with knees stacked. Extend left arm toward ceiling, then bend left elbow, bringing palm to touch the center of upper back; then bend right arm behind back, trying to grasp fingers of left hand. Stay here for 5–8 breaths, breathing evenly; then switch sides and repeat. To make it more comfortable, you can also sit on a blanket instead of a block.
RELATED: 15 Stretches You Should Do Every Day
From Cow Face pose, slide right leg forward onto the floor, placing right shin parallel to the front of the mat, and slide left knee on floor behind you. Lower left thigh to mat with top of left foot facing down. Stay upright, with torso over hips and hips square to the front of the mat. Remain here for 5–8 full breaths, then bring left foot toward right and repeat on opposite side.
RELATED: 5 Best Yoga Poses for Runners
Bound Angle pose
Sit on mat with soles of feet together and knees bent out to sides. Interlace fingers around feet. Inhaling, press knees down toward mat while sitting up tall; bow forward slightly to get a deeper stretch. Stay here for 8–10 breaths.
Ankle to Knee pose
From Bound Angle pose, cross right knee over left ankle and bring bottom leg in so right ankle is over left knee, with shins stacked. Bring both palms to floor in front of you, leaning forward slightly. Hold here for 5–8 breaths.
Half Reclining Hero’s pose
Kneel on mat with knees together. Sit back on heels, and then extend right leg straight out in front of you. Slide left foot slightly wider than knee with the top of left foot on the floor and big toe angled in, allowing butt to rest on floor. Then place hands on floor behind you and lean back, bringing elbows and forearms to floor behind you. From here, continue to lower all the way to the floor or as far as you can go without pain or discomfort; cross elbows overhead. Stay here for 5–8 breaths.
Begin in Downward Dog with hands on floor in front of shoulders, legs extended, and hips lifted in an inverted V. Step right foot to the outside of right hand, then lower both elbows to mat, keeping right knee next to right side. Keep left leg active, pressing back with left heel, and hips level, without allowing them to sag. Stay here for 8–10 breaths, then step right foot back. Lift hips to ceiling as a break, and repeat on left side.
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You know hip dips—these are the inward curves above each hip bone that most of us have. Some people have hip dips that are more visible than others, and lots of users on social media edit theirs out, viewing them as a body flaw when these curves are actually totally normal.
So it's refreshing to come across an influencer who is no longer hiding her hip dips and instead celebrating them—and taking to Instagram to demonstrate why others should too.
On Tuesday, London-based influencer Danielle Mansutti—best known for her beauty tips and enviable travel itinerary—shared a message about her hip dips, which used to be one of her biggest body insecurities.
“HIP DIPS!” she wrote. “Something that so many women (and men) have, yet something so hidden away. I’ve had hip dips for as long as I can remember, and have spent the majority of my life feeling like I was the only one in the world who had them.”
Mansutti copped to spending a considerable amount of time editing out her hip dips from social photos, in an attempt to fit in with other influencers. But she eventually realized how dangerous this was—making other women who have hip dips view them as unattractive and leading to a skewed idea of what a normal body looks like.
“We do need to remember not to compare our bodies to bodies that have been enhanced,” she reminded her followers. “If you have hip dips, just like I do, guess what – it’s normal! Sometimes I love mine and sometimes I don’t, but I’ve accepted that they are a part of me and are a normal thing.”
If you’re a member of what she calls her “hip dip crew,” try not to view them unflattering, and definitely don't edit them out of your social images. Instead, take Mansutti's advice to embrace and love your body—which is perfect as is.